Global Action has long taken note of the many changes affecting current policies governing UN peacekeeping operations. Along with many of our Fellows and affiliates, we have often cautioned about more robust, coercive peacekeeping mandates that are insufficiently clear in their objectives, overload peacekeepers with responsibilities ranging from protecting UN country teams to rebuilding national judiciaries, and increasingly distort the last vestiges of peacekeeper neutrality. As co-editor David Curran notes in his own chapter, peacekeepers face increasing dangers amidst complex deployments where there is simply “no peace to keep.”
This volume, which includes an introduction by UN Undersecretary-General Adama Dieng, explores aspects of this new peacekeeping terrain, identifying both new stakeholders and emerging dangers. One such danger is related to the over-reliance of peacekeeping operations as a substitute for robust, preventive, diplomatic and development capacities. The UN’s annual ceremony last month honoring fallen peacekeepers was a moving affair, but the growing number of casualties cited underscored growing threats to peacekeepers placed in highly volatile contexts and asked to work wonders through a complex mix of coercive and non-coercive measures.
While four editors are listed on the cover, completion of this book would not have been possible without our Peace and Security Fellow, Dr. Trudy Fraser. Trudy, now a new mother, is also a skilled writer, analyst and editor. More than anyone, Trudy shaped this text and helped us overcome editorial and logistical difficulties that almost always shadow projects of this sort. The result is a volume that poses provocative questions, suggests new tools and stakeholders, and reminds policymakers that our primary task is to prevent violence rather than finding new and clever ways to respond to violence once it is already raging.
We believe that this volume (and its many recommendations to scholars and policymakers) will make a significant contribution to our understanding of new trends in peacekeeping operations and atrocity crime prevention, all while enhancing our prevention and protection responsibilities.
For more information on this volume, click here.
For more on the work of USG Dieng’s office, click here.
Many of us in the Global Action family were deeply saddened by the loss on Friday, May 22 of Professor Sheri Rosenberg. Sheri taught for many years at the Cardozo School of Law and was a mainstay in efforts around the United Nations to address threats of mass atrocities. She was also much revered by students in her Human Rights and Genocide Law Clinic, some of whom were fortunate to accompany her on trips to Rwanda and other areas impacted by mass violence.
Like many in our line of work, Sheri shared her gifts with others beyond the public glare. Among those gifts were financial contributions she made to our office allowing us to bring interns and fellows to New York to participate in genocide prevention (and related) discussions and activities.
She was also a devoted mother to her children and worried often about how her evolving sickness would impact them.
Sheri opened the resources and facilities of Cardozo to scholars and practitioners alike. She had many collaborators, including GAPW, having allowed us to cooperate with her in publishing “Healing the Wounds: Speech, Identity and Reconciliation in Rwanda and Beyond.”
Sheri deeply wished to cultivate a strong and identifiable voice to influence the structures and norms needed to effectively prevent genocide and other mass atrocities — to make a better world for her own children and, indeed, for children everywhere.
Mission accomplished, dear Sheri.
For more on her life’s work, click here.
The news from Nepal this weekend could hardly be more dire. As aftershocks continue to buffer the regions around Katmandu, the remaining fine lines separating survival and death disappear for many.
For Global Action, there are many reasons to pause and mourn, including friends working in Nepal’s disarmament, development, health and religious sectors. We have experienced large earthquakes elsewhere. There is simply no way to prepare for devastation that seemingly comes out of nowhere and undermines what little remains of our confidence in a predictable world.
But even more, one of our board members and most trusted advisors, Christina Madden just returned from an extended visit to Nepal. Christina, who serves as Executive Director of Himalayan Health Care, had just concluded a long trek with medical personnel and others committed to the health and economic well-being of Nepal’s many underserved rural communities. Her tales of hope from those places were compelling and inspiring.
Even before the full benefit of her experiences had sunk in, this shock for the ages.
Global Action will do what we can to support Himalayan Health Care in its efforts to leverage medical care and economic opportunity. The needs now are on a scale that could never have been imagined just a few short days ago.
For more information on Himalayan Health Care, click here.
The Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues returned to the United Nations this week. Under the leadership of Megan Davis of Australia (Chair) the Forum examined its own working methods, issued calls for more state attention to the promotion of indigenous rights, urged creation of indicators to more effectively measure social and economic progress of indigenous peoples, and discussed strategies to address disturbing statistics regarding self-harm and suicide by indigenous youth.
On March 12, 2015 GAPW was joined by Ms. Maritza Chan of the Permanent Mission of Costa Rica to the United Nations and students and faculty of Instituto Mora in Mexico,DF for a webinar that explored the ways in which insecurity from illicit weapons, narcotics trafficking and an under-developed security sector threatens the full implementation of development priorities.
The webinar was the first in a series of events to promote “Linking Security and Development in the post-2015 Agenda,” soon to be released by Instituto Mora. The book owes its existence to the steady guidance provided by Mora’s Dr. Lucatello Simone. With its blending of Latin American and outside authors, the book attempts to link policy communities committed to peacemaking on the one hand and those who will lead the implementation of post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) on the other.
Among the book’s recommendations is the call for more policy attention on the preventive dimensions of the SDGs, including the prevention of pandemics such as Ebola, the restriction of flows on illicit weapons before they find their way into the hands of non-state actors or rogue elements, and preserving inclusive access to precious national resources before such resources become a pretext for violence. In these and other instances, more prevention and less reaction from policymakers to the many problems that inhibit development objectives would, the authors believe, be time well spent.
For more information on the webinar, including access to GAPW posts on current security and development issues, click here.
For more information on Instituto Mora, click here.
While our own role in “Informing Conflict Prevention, Response and Resolution” ( INFOCORE) is modest, the project will provide important insights on how media outlets can exacerbate inclinations to violent conflict as well as assist in conflict prevention or in the reconciliation of former combatants and communities once conflict has ceased. Given our broad access to UN agencies and diplomatic missions working on a wide range of conflict-related issues, as well as our own media-related efforts at UN headquarters, we believe that we are in a particularly good position to ensure that INFOCORE media-related recommendations will find their way into policy discussions addressing many forms of violence from local discrimination against migrants to the most horrific mass atrocities committed against entire populations.
In one form or other, media outlets cover these and many more instances of violence and abuse, sometimes in constructive ways, other times not. Sorting out the norms and protocols for a more constructive role for media in violence prevention and reconciliation through comparative research and analysis is the welcome and highly-relevant objective of INFOCORE.
For more information on INFOCORE, please click here.
For access to GAPW’s report on the status of UN media, please click here.
January 2015| Santiago, Chile
As readers of this space over the years are well aware, GAPW has a longstanding commitment to eliminating nuclear weapons, thus ending the stranglehold of such weapons on the security policies of possessor states.
Our work in this area has been mostly inspired by the Lawyers Committee on Nuclear Policy (LCNP), though we have contributed to discussions on nuclear weapons modernization with Reaching Critical Will, on weapons of mass destruction-free zones with the Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (OPANAL), and on several inter-related security matters. We have also followed with interest recent discussions on the humanitarian consequences of nuclear weapons as well as on an LCNP-supported suit filed with the International Court of Justice by the Marshall Islands whose residents suffered greatly from extensive above-ground nuclear testing in their region during and after WW II.
As we approach another installment of the UN Disarmament Commission in April and a review of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty process in May, several states are organizing strategy sessions to look at possible outcomes and obstacles. One such session occurred recently in Santiago in the country (Chile) currently serving as Security Council president. The event, “Roads to Nuclear Disarmament: A Case of Convergence in Diversity,” brought together Chilean diplomats, UN disarmament officials and key policymakers. LCNP’s John Burroughs was asked to make a presentation at the panel focused on “Humanitarian Approaches to Nuclear Weapons” in which he raises the bar on ‘good faith’ nuclear negotiations.
With guidance from LCNP and other partners, GAPW will continue to weigh in where we can, as states deliberate and negotiate – mostly fitfully – towards a world without nuclear weapons.
For more information on the Chile event, click here.
For access to the paper by LCNP’s John Burroughs, click here.
December 2014| Limbe, Cameroon
Food security is a large and growing global problem affecting many millions of people, including refugees as well as citizens in states that use food as a weapon to punish dissent. Recent briefing in the UN Security Council on Syria and the DPRK provided sober, painful reminders of the brutality that accompanies state policies to restrict food access for political, cultural or religious objectives.
Recently in Cameroon, GAPW worked with LUKMEF and other partners to explore options for women farmers who have largely been denied access to personal security and markets for their produce that can increase prosperity for their families and communities. Open and transparent ‘cooperative registration’ is widely believed to hold the key to greater empowerment for women farmers throughout the region.
LUKMEF’s efforts notwithstanding, challenges in securing ‘cooperative registration’ have been considerable. Government ‘cooperation’ with registation has been elusive at best. The struggle for local food security through collective bargaining, purchasing, etc.,will remain a priority for some time to come.
Despite frustrations with registration, we personally witnessed some extraordinary efforts to improve food security and nutrition in local communities, including fish farming and women-led farms committed to both training the next generation of farmers and growing a wider range of vegetables to improve local nutrition, boost incomes and increase food security.
One such place was the Young Farmers Training Center in the town of Muyuka where we were treated to a tour of land that is among many farms carefully being transitioned from export crops such as palm and banana to crops such as okra, tomato and sweet squash more suitable for healthy, local consumption.
At the end of our tour of the Training Center, the women broke into a thankful chant to honor the ‘wonder of vegetables.’ In this season of abundance for so many in the west, we surely have chants of our own that we would do well to utter.
For more information on ‘cooperative registration’ for agricultural workers in Cameroon, click here.
November 2014| Sydney, Australia
Global Action is pleased to endorse the latest analysis by Dr. Annie Herro of prospects for a UN Emergency Peace Service (UNEPS), a standing, gender and service integrated, rapid-response capacity that can help the international community respond early and effectively to outbreaks of mass atrocity violence.
Regional ‘rapid response’ capacities are in various stages of development through the African Union and with the European Union’s “Battlegroups.” These and other iterations are prompted by the view, more and more widespread, that our responses to threats of violence against civilians come too late to either mediate disputes or to address violent outbreaks in their earliest stages.
Dr. Herro has a long relationship with GAPW and has authored other works on UNEPS with Kavitha Suthanthiraraj, formerly International Coordinator of GAPW. Their work looks beyond the technical details of a UNEPS to discuss how important norms — in this case the necessity of early and timely response — is affected by a number of factors including the political savvy and trustworthiness of the norms’ caretakers. The book concludes that because the UNEPS proposal is intricately linked to the UN, trust in the world organisation and its leadership is also an essential ingredient in generating support for the idea. Herro urges us to ensure that the values and priorities of a wide range of stakeholders are represented while undertaking any potentially controversial proposal such as UNEPS is alleged to be by some UN member states.
GAPW, under the leadership of Dr. Trudy Fraser and Dr. David Curran, has also prepared a series of essays on rapid reaction peacekeeping that will soon be released by the German publisher Springer. Dr. Herro also contributed to this volume.
It should be noted that GAPW’s work on UNEPS was supported for many years by The Simons Foundation in Canada, for which we remain grateful.
For access to a longer description of the Herro book, click here.
For more information on The Simons Foundation, click here.
October 2014| New York, NY
For the past several years, GAPW and the Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Foundation (LUKMEF) in Limbe, Cameroon have undertaken joint programming on a variety of issues germane to the prevention of armed violence and mass atrocities in Central Africa. Currently we continue to create consultations linking offices in New York and Limbe/Douala while branching out to new civil society constituencies, including women farmers, whose empowerment and skills development can help eliminate prospects for mass atrocity violence in a region that faces a myriad of security challenges. To this effect, LUKMEF and GAPW with $10,000 in financial support from The NEXUS FUND are focusing on three key project areas for collaboration in 2014:
- A project to Prevent gender-based violence in rural communities of Central Africa areas by eliminating the economic vulnerability of women agricultural workers and by increasing their access to markets and other resources
- A project to help ensure equal access to justice for women and cultural minorities in Cameroon making good use of the administrative justice system to fight corruption and administrative bottlenecks that too often impede justice and fuel violence
- A project to facilitate more regular, security-focused discussion between military officials and culturally diverse civil society leaders.
An underlying goal in all these activities is the promotion of more community participation in policy and governance issues that can magnify diverse, local voices and eliminate impunity for the illegal actions of state officials.
As the security situation continues to pose significant challenges in Cameroon and several of its neighbours - specifically Nigeria and Central African Republic - it is critically important for programs based in this region to foster more government-civil society dialogue, more access to justice, more government -sponsored protective measures in rural areas, and more attentiveness to the policy integration of skills and voices from communities across the region. All of these activities make contributions to societies better able to resist any potential descent into mass violence. This NEXUS exchange builds upon and deepens prior work linking our two offices and helps us establish a more robust and permanent relationship.
For more information on LUKMEF, click here.
For more information on NEXUS Fund, click here.